Chloroplasts in envelopes: CO(2) fixation by fully functional intact chloroplasts

Photosynth Res. 2003;76(1-3):319-27. doi: 10.1023/A:1024962328483.

Abstract

Dan Arnon, Bob Whatley, Mary Belle Allen, and their colleagues, were the first to obtain evidence for 'complete photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts' albeit at rates which were 1% or less of those displayed by the intact leaf. By the 1960s, partly in the hope of confirming full functionality, there was a perceived need to raise these rates to the same order of magnitude as those displayed by the parent tissue. A nominal figure of 100 mumol/mgcchlorophyll/h (CO(2) assimilated or O(2) evolved) became a target much sought after. This article describes the contributions that Dick Jensen and Al Bassham [(1966) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 56: 1095-1101], and my colleagues and I, made to the achievement of this goal and the way in which it led to a better understanding of the role of inorganic phosphate in its relation to the movement of metabolites across chloroplast envelopes.