The aim of this was to examine rates and determinants of depressive symptomatology in the immediate postpartum period among Hispanic women in the United States. A total of 3952 Hispanic women who had delivered infants (parturients) were interviewed in postpartum wards in Miami, New York City and San Francisco. Symptoms of depression were regressed onto a series of social, psychological, and socioeconomic variables. Results showed that 42.6% of participants were probable cases of depression (CES-D > or = 16). Depression was negatively associated with perceived level of social support (adjusted OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.53-0.67) and health insurance coverage (adjusted OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49-0.95), but not with the degree of acculturation or immigration status. It was found that depressive symptoms are common among Hispanic parturients. Pregnant Hispanic women should be carefully monitored for signs of depression and appropriate preventive measures are needed.