The gene repertoire and the common evolutionary history of glutamate, pheromone (V2R), taste(1) and other related G protein-coupled receptors

Gene. 2005 Dec 5;362:70-84. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2005.07.029. Epub 2005 Oct 17.


Glutamate receptors (also known as clan C) are one of the main groups of GPCRs with many subgroup linked through complex evolutionary relationships. We performed thorough searches for genes coding for proteins belonging to this family in the human, mouse, Fugu, and zebrafish genomes, as well as in four invertebrate species. We assembled over 70 new full-length sequences from protein predictions excluding pseudogenes. This resulted in a total of 22 full-length sequences from the human genome, 79 from the mouse genome, 30 from the Fugu genome, and 32 from the zebrafish genome (pseudogenes are not included in these numbers). We show that the vertebrate Glutamate GPCRs form four main phylogenetic groups with a total of eight subgroups (Group I: V2R, TAS1R, GPRC6A, and CASR, Group II: GRM, Group III: GABA together with previously unpublished GPR158 and GPR158L and Group IV: GPRC5). All eight receptor subgroups are present both in mammals and fish, except for GPRC5 and GPR158. The pheromone (V2R), GPRC6, and sweet taste (TAS1) receptors were not found in invertebrates while GRM, GABA, and CASR were found in both C. elegans and C. intestinalis. The pheromone receptors are found in high numbers in mouse, zebrafish and Fugu but are only found as pseudogenes in the human genome. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the expansion/deletions of the groups within the Glutamate receptor family.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Animals
  • Cell Size
  • Computational Biology
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Expressed Sequence Tags / chemistry
  • Gene Duplication
  • Humans
  • Multigene Family
  • Phylogeny
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / chemistry
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics*
  • Receptors, Glutamate / genetics*
  • Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate / genetics
  • Receptors, Pheromone / genetics*


  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Receptors, Glutamate
  • Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate
  • Receptors, Pheromone
  • taste receptors, type 1