Treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, part 2

Am J Sports Med. 2005 Nov;33(11):1751-67. doi: 10.1177/0363546505279922.


Anterior cruciate ligament tears, common among athletes, are functionally disabling; they predispose the knee to subsequent injuries and the early onset of osteoarthritis. A total of 3810 studies published between January 1994 and the present were identified and reviewed to determine the current state of knowledge regarding the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Part 1 of this article focused on studies pertaining to the biomechanical behavior of the anterior cruciate ligament, the prevalence of and risk factors for injuries related to it, the natural history of the ligament-deficient knee, injuries associated with anterior cruciate ligament disruption, indications for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, as well as nonoperative and operative treatments. Part 2 includes technical aspects of anterior cruciate ligament surgery, bone tunnel widening, graft healing, rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and the effects of sex, age, and activity level on the outcome of such reconstructive surgery.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries*
  • Braces
  • Cold Temperature
  • Femur / surgery
  • Humans
  • Knee Injuries / rehabilitation*
  • Knee Injuries / surgery*
  • Orthopedic Procedures / methods*
  • Physical Therapy Modalities
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / methods*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Tendons / transplantation
  • Tibia / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Weight-Bearing