Objective: To examine changes in health status among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH).
Methods: We examined perceived health status changes from the prepregnancy, as recalled at 12-20 weeks gestation, to the postpartum period in women with GDM (n = 64) vs. unaffected gravidas (n = 1233) and women diagnosed with PIH (n = 148) vs. unaffected gravidas. We used patient survey and medical record data from a prospective cohort study. Health status measures included the Short Form-36 scales for physical function, vitality, and self-rated health and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Multivariate logistic regression models controlled for age, parity, race, education, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and exercise levels, food insufficiency, and GDM or PIH during a prior pregnancy.
Results: Women with PIH more often reported a significant decline in vitality (odds ratio [OR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.23) and self-rated health (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.19- 3.77) and an increase in depressive symptoms from prepregnancy to postpartum compared with unaffected women (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.11-3.05). Decline in self-rated health was partially mediated by cesarean birth and preterm delivery. Similar proportions of women with GDM and unaffected women reported declines in health status measures.
Conclusions: Women with PIH, but not GDM, more often experience significant declines in health status from prepregnancy to postpartum than unaffected women.