Trauma, PTSD, and resilience: a review of the literature

Trauma Violence Abuse. 2005 Jul;6(3):195-216. doi: 10.1177/1524838005277438.


Based on the available literature, this review article investigates the issue of resilience in relation to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. Resilient coping to extreme stress and trauma is a multifaceted phenomena characterized as a complex repertoire of behavioral tendencies. An integrative Person x Situation model is developed based on the literature that specifies the nature of interactions among five classes of variables: (a) personality, (b) affect regulation, (c) coping, (d) ego defenses, and (e) the utilization and mobilization of protective factors and resources to aid coping.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adult
  • Attitude to Health
  • Child
  • Defense Mechanisms
  • Humans
  • Life Change Events
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / complications
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / psychology
  • Survivors* / psychology
  • Wounds and Injuries* / psychology