The anatomy and physiology of the omentum provide optimum reconstructive characteristics and the omentum may be used as a free or pedicled autograft, but also as the receptor site for engraftment of glandular islets. Our purpose was the study of the omental anatomy of non-human primate (NHP), in order to determine an experimental model for pancreatic islets transplantation. Seventeen cadavers NHP (age range 4 years to 23 years) were utilised in this anatomical study. Both cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) and baboons (papio hamadryas) were analysed. The animals were without known medical or anatomical abnormalities. We studied the morphology of the omentum, with an emphasis on arterial vascularisation. The omental anatomy of the NHP is very similar to that of humans. The main difference lies in the shape of the lesser sac, which has a complete caudal recess. The arterial vascularisation has a double origin. Based on the anastomosis between them and on the vascular density, the NHP omentum can be divided into four vascular areas. Our results demonstrate that one or two long pedicled flaps can be constructed from the omentum.