O-GlcNAc is an ubiquitous post-translational protein modification consisting of a single N-acetlyglucosamine moiety linked to serine or threonine residues on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Recent work has begun to uncover the functional roles of O-GlcNAc in cellular processes. O-GlcNAc modified proteins are involved in sensing the nutrient status of the surrounding cellular environment and adjusting the activity of cellular proteins accordingly. O-GlcNAc regulates cellular responses to hormones such as insulin, initiates a protective response to stress, modulates a cell's capacity to grow and divide, and regulates gene transcription. This review will focus on recent work involving O-GlcNAc in sensing the environment and regulating signaling cascades.
(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.