In vitro susceptibility of oral Candida to seven antifungal agents

Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005 Dec;20(6):349-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-302X.2005.00236.x.


The in vitro susceptibility of 618 Candida isolates to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, amphotericin B, and nystatin was determined. The isolates were obtained from 559 patients who had attended the UK dental hospital departments in Cardiff, Belfast, Glasgow or London. Antifungal susceptibility was assessed using a broth microdilution method following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M27-A guidelines. The majority of the test strains were C. albicans (n = 521) with few of these being resistant to fluconazole (0.3%). A low incidence of fluconazole resistance (0-6.8%) was similarly evident with all non albicans species (Candida glabrata, 5 of 59 resistant; Candida krusei, 0 of 7 resistant; Candida tropicalis, 0 of 13 resistant; Candida parapsilosis, 0 of 12 resistant; other Candida species, 0 of 6 resistant). Voriconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole also revealed high activity against both C. albicans and non albicans isolates, and 23.7% of C. glabrata isolates were found to be resistant to itraconazole. There was little difference in the antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolated from patients who had a history of previous antifungal therapy compared with those who had not received antifungal treatment. In summary, this surveillance study of antifungal susceptibility of oral candidal isolates in the UK, through the collaboration of four dental hospitals, demonstrates that oral Candida species have a high level of susceptibilities to a range of antifungal agents.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amphotericin B / pharmacology
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Candida / classification
  • Candida / drug effects*
  • Candida albicans / drug effects
  • Candida glabrata / drug effects
  • Candida tropicalis / drug effects
  • Candidiasis, Oral / microbiology
  • Drug Resistance, Fungal
  • Fluconazole / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Itraconazole / pharmacology
  • Ketoconazole / pharmacology
  • Miconazole / pharmacology
  • Mouth Diseases / microbiology
  • Nystatin / pharmacology
  • Pyrimidines / pharmacology
  • Triazoles / pharmacology
  • Voriconazole


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Pyrimidines
  • Triazoles
  • Nystatin
  • Itraconazole
  • Miconazole
  • Amphotericin B
  • Fluconazole
  • Voriconazole
  • Ketoconazole