Objectives: To provide a comprehensive source document on previously published cost data for diabetic complications in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy and Spain for use in a peer-reviewed, validated diabetes model.
Methods: A search for published cost of diabetes complications data was performed in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed and health economic conference proceedings from 1994 to March 2005. Where country specific data were not available, we referred to government websites and local cost experts. All costs were inflated to 2003 Euros (E). Major complication costs are presented.
Results: First year costs of non-fatal myocardial infarction varied between E19277 in Spain and E12292 in Australia. In subsequent years of treatment, this range was E1226 (France) to E203 (Australia). Angina costs were similar across all four countries: E1716 in Australia; E2218 in Canada; E2613 in France; E3342 in Germany; E2297 in Italy; and E2207 in Spain. Event costs of non-fatal stroke were higher in Canada (E23173) than in other countries (Australia E13443; France E11754; Germany E19399; Italy E6583; Spain E4638). Event costs of end-stage renal disease varied depending on the type of dialysis: in Australia (E17188-27552); Canada (E33811-58159); France (E24608-56487); Germany (E46296-68175); Italy (E43075-56717); and Spain (E28370-32706). Lower extremity amputation costs were: E18547 (Australia); E17130 (Canada); E31998 (France); E22096 (Germany); E10177 (Italy); and E14787 (Spain).
Conclusions: Overall, our search showed costs are well documented in Australia, Canada, France and Germany, but revealed a paucity of data for Spain and Italy. Spanish costs, collected by contacting local experts and from government reports, generally appeared to be lower for treating cardiovascular complications than in other countries. Italian costs reported in the literature were primarily hospitalization costs derived from diagnosis-related groups, and therefore likely to misrepresent the cost of specific complications. Additional research is required to document complication costs in Spain and Italy. Australian and German values were collected primarily by referring to diagnostic related group (DRG) tariffs and, as a result, there may be a need for future economic evaluations measuring the accuracy of the costs and resource utilization in the reported values. These cost data are essential to create models of diabetes that are able to accurately simulate the cumulative costs associated with the progression of the disease and its complications.