We applied an enhanced version of subtractive hybridization for comparative analyses of indel differences between genomes of several Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains widespread in Russian regions, and the H37Rv reference strain. A number of differences were detected and partially analyzed, thus demonstrating the practicality of the approach. A majority of the insertions found were shared by all Russian strains, except for strain 1540 that revealed the highest virulence in animal tests. This strain possesses a number of genes absent from other clinical strains. Two of the differential genes were found to encode putative membrane proteins and are presumed to affect mycobacterial interaction with the host cell, thus enhancing virulent properties of the isolate. The method used is of general application, and enables the elaboration of a catalogue of indel polymorphic genomic differences between closely related strains.