Low-grade gliomas (LGG) are not benign neoplasms. Patients with LGG eventually die as a consequence of this disease. Although the survival of patients with LGG is better than that of patients with higher-grade tumours, many of the treatments can produce or contribute to chronic impairment, particularly radiotherapy. Chemotherapy has emerged as a promising therapy, although definitive findings are awaited. Breakthroughs in molecular biology have improved our understanding of tumours and have led to the development of novel treatments and better prognoses. Ongoing clinical trials will help to elucidate the optimum management of patients with LGG.