Andreev probe of persistent current states in superconducting quantum circuits

Phys Rev Lett. 2005 Sep 30;95(14):147001. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.147001. Epub 2005 Sep 27.


Using the extraordinary sensitivity of Andreev interferometers to the superconducting phase difference associated with currents, we measure the persistent current quantum states in superconducting loops interrupted by Josephson junctions. Straightforward electrical resistance measurements of the interferometers give a continuous readout of the states, allowing us to construct the energy spectrum of the quantum circuit. The probe is estimated to be more precise and faster than previous methods, and can measure the local phase difference in a wide range of superconducting circuits.