Thiol redox control via thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems

Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Dec;33(Pt 6):1375-7. doi: 10.1042/BST20051375.


The Trx (thioredoxin) and Grx (glutaredoxin) systems control cellular redox potential, keeping a reducing thiol-rich intracellular state, which on generation of reactive oxygen species signals through thiol redox control mechanisms. Here, we give a brief overview of the human Trx and Grx systems. The main part focuses on our current knowledge about mitochondrial Grx2, which facilitates mitochondrial redox homoeostasis during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Glutaredoxins
  • Humans
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / chemistry*
  • Thioredoxins / metabolism*


  • GLRX protein, human
  • GLRX2 protein, human
  • Glutaredoxins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • Thioredoxins
  • Oxidoreductases