A survey questionnaire was mailed to residents and faculty at a midwestern medical school to assess male and female attitudes toward colleagues' pregnancies. A total of 67% (N = 97) of the 145 faculty and 48% (N = 103) of the 214 residents completed surveys, yielding an overall return rate of 56% (N = 200). Among faculty, responses on only 1 of the 15 items showed a significant difference by gender. Residents' responses, however, showed statistically significant gender differences on 8 of the 15 items. More female than male residents felt that pregnant physicians maintain job performance and interest in medicine. More male than female residents believed pregnancy was disruptive to relationships with colleagues and viewed women of childbearing age as a risk to the optimum functioning of a department. The authors discuss reasons for the gender differences in attitude found among the residents and suggest possible interventions.