Neurite outgrowth on a step gradient of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CS-PG)

J Neurobiol. 1992 Apr;23(3):322-36. doi: 10.1002/neu.480230311.


Sulfated proteoglycans (PGs) may play a significant role in the regulation of neurite outgrowth. They are present in axon-free regions of the developing nervous system and repel elongating neurites in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. The addition of growth-promoting molecules, such as laminin, can modify the inhibitory effect of PGs on neurite outgrowth (Snow, Steindler, and Silver, 1990b). Substrata containing a high-PG/low-laminin ratio completely inhibit neurite outgrowth, while normal, unimpeded outgrowth is observed on low-PG/high-laminin substrata. Therefore, different patterns of neurite outgrowth may result from regulation of the ratio of growth-promoting molecules to growth-inhibiting molecules. Using video microscopy, embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRG), chicken retinal ganglia neurons (RGC), and rat forebrain neurons (FB) were analyzed as they extended processes from a substratum consisting of laminin alone onto a step gradient of increasing concentrations of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CS-PG) bound to laminin. In contrast to neurite outgrowth inhibition that occurs at the border of a single stripe of high concentration of CS-PG (Snow et al., 1990b and this study), growth cones grew onto and up CS-PG presented in a step-wise graded distribution. Although the behavior of the different cell types was unique, a common behavior of each cell type was a decrease in the rate of neurite outgrowth with increasing CS-PG concentration. These data suggest that appropriate concentrations of growth-promoting molecules combined with growth-inhibiting molecules may regulate the direction and possibly the timing of neurite outgrowth in vivo. The different responses of different neuronal types suggest that the presence of sulfated PG may have varying effects on different aspects of neuronal development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aggrecans
  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chick Embryo
  • Culture Media
  • Cytological Techniques
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins*
  • Glycoproteins / metabolism*
  • Glycoproteins / physiology
  • Lectins, C-Type
  • Neurites / physiology*
  • Prosencephalon / cytology
  • Proteoglycans*
  • Rats
  • Retina / cytology
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells / physiology


  • Acan protein, rat
  • Aggrecans
  • Culture Media
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • Lectins, C-Type
  • Proteoglycans