Background: Based on the association between the neutrophil and ventilator-induced lung injury, the authors hypothesized that neutrophil inhibition with fucoidin would be beneficial and stimulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) would be harmful in a rat model of lethal ventilator-induced lung injury.
Methods: Animals (n = 111) were randomly assigned to be pretreated with fucoidin, G-CSF, or placebo (control) before 4 h of low-tidal-volume (10 ml/kg) or high-tidal-volume (40 ml/kg) mechanical ventilation.
Results: All low-volume animals survived. With high volumes, compared with controls, fucoidin did not improve survival (3 of 20 control animals and 5 of 20 fucoidin animals died; P = 0.51) but G-CSF significantly worsened it (18 of 22 animals died; P < 0.001). Circulating neutrophils were increased early with G-CSF and late with fucoidin with low and high tidal volumes (P < 0.05 for each treatment and tidal volume). Fucoidin decreased lung neutrophils, but these were only significant with high tidal volumes, whereas G-CSF increased lung neutrophils but only significantly with low tidal volumes (P < or = 0.01 for each). Fucoidin did not alter any cardiopulmonary measure significantly. Compared with control, G-CSF increased airway pressures with high tidal volumes and worsened lung edema and arterial oxygen with both tidal volumes (P < 0.05 for each).
Conclusions: In this model, neutrophil stimulation by G-CSF increased lung dysfunction and with high tidal volumes worsened survival rates. Extrapolated clinically, neutrophil stimulation either by agents such as G-CSF or conditions such as sepsis may aggravate ventilator-induced lung injury.