Among other functions, lectins play an important role in the innate immune response of vertebrates and invertebrates by recognizing exposed glycans on the surface of potential pathogens. Despite the typically weak interaction of lectin domains with their carbohydrate ligands, they usually achieve high avidity through oligomeric structures or by the presence of tandem carbohydrate-binding domains along the polypeptide. The recently described structure of the fucose-binding European eel agglutinin revealed a novel lectin fold (the "F-type" fold), which is shared with other carbohydrate-binding proteins and apparently unrelated proteins from prokaryotes to vertebrates, and a unique fucose-binding sequence motif. Here we described the biochemical and molecular characterization of a unique fucose-binding lectin (MsaFBP32) isolated from serum of the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), composed of two tandem domains that exhibit the eel carbohydrate recognition sequence motif, which we designate F-type. We also described a novel lectin family ("F-type") constituted by a large number of proteins exhibiting greater multiples of the F-type motif, either tandemly arrayed or in mosaic combinations with other domains, including a putative transmembrane receptor, that suggests an extensive functional diversification of this lectin family. Among the tandem lectins, MsaFBP32 and other tandem binary homologues appear unique in that although their N-terminal domain shows close similarity to the fucose recognition domain of the eel agglutinin, their C-terminal domain exhibits changes that potentially could confer a distinct specificity for fucosylated ligands. In contrast with the amniotes, in which the F-type lectins appear conspicuously absent, the widespread gene duplication in the teleost fish suggests these F-type lectins acquired increasing evolutionary value within this taxon.