Prior antimicrobial therapy and risk for hospital-acquired Candida glabrata and Candida krusei fungemia: a case-case-control study

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Nov;49(11):4555-60. doi: 10.1128/AAC.49.11.4555-4560.2005.


The incidence of infections caused by Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, which are generally more resistant to fluconazole than Candida albicans, is increasing in hospitalized patients. However, the extent to which prior exposure to specific antimicrobial agents increases the risk of subsequent C. glabrata or C. krusei candidemia has not been closely studied. A retrospective case-case-control study was performed at a university hospital. From 1998 to 2003, 60 patients were identified with hospital-acquired non-C. albicans candidemia (C. glabrata or C. krusei; case group 1). For comparison, 68 patients with C. albicans candidemia (case group 2) and a common control group of 121 patients without candidemia were studied. Models were adjusted for demographic and clinical risk factors, and the risk for candidemia associated with exposure to specific antimicrobial agents was assessed. After adjusting for both nonantimicrobial risk factors and receipt of other antimicrobial agents, piperacillin-tazobactam (odds ratio [OR], 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 16.50) and vancomycin (OR, 6.48; CI, 2.20 to 19.13) were significant risk factors for C. glabrata or C. krusei candidemia. For C. albicans candidemia, no specific antibiotics remained a significant risk after adjusted analysis. Prior fluconazole use was not significantly associated with either C. albicans or non-C. albicans (C. glabrata or C. krusei) candidemia. In this single-center study, exposure to antibacterial agents, specifically vancomycin or piperacillin-tazobactam, but not fluconazole, was associated with subsequent hospital-acquired C. glabrata or C. krusei candidemia. Further studies are needed to prospectively analyze specific antimicrobial risks for nosocomial candidemia across multiple hospital centers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / adverse effects*
  • Candida glabrata*
  • Candidiasis / etiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cross Infection / etiology*
  • Female
  • Fluconazole / adverse effects
  • Fungemia / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Penicillanic Acid / adverse effects
  • Penicillanic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Piperacillin / adverse effects
  • Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Vancomycin / adverse effects


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination
  • Vancomycin
  • Penicillanic Acid
  • Fluconazole
  • Piperacillin