Mammal-like muscles power swimming in a cold-water shark

Nature. 2005 Oct 27;437(7063):1349-52. doi: 10.1038/nature04007.


Effects of temperature on muscle contraction and powering movement are profound, outwardly obvious, and of great consequence to survival. To cope with the effects of environmental temperature fluctuations, endothermic birds and mammals maintain a relatively warm and constant body temperature, whereas most fishes and other vertebrates are ectothermic and conform to their thermal niche, compromising performance at colder temperatures. However, within the fishes the tunas and lamnid sharks deviate from the ectothermic strategy, maintaining elevated core body temperatures that presumably confer physiological advantages for their roles as fast and continuously swimming pelagic predators. Here we show that the salmon shark, a lamnid inhabiting cold, north Pacific waters, has become so specialized for endothermy that its red, aerobic, locomotor muscles, which power continuous swimming, seem mammal-like, functioning only within a markedly elevated temperature range (20-30 degrees C). These muscles are ineffectual if exposed to the cool water temperatures, and when warmed even 10 degrees C above ambient they still produce only 25-50% of the power produced at 26 degrees C. In contrast, the white muscles, powering burst swimming, do not show such a marked thermal dependence and work well across a wide range of temperatures.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arctic Regions
  • Body Temperature Regulation / physiology
  • Cold Temperature*
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Sharks / anatomy & histology
  • Sharks / physiology*
  • Swimming / physiology*
  • Water*


  • Water