Spectral- and frequency-encoded fluorescence imaging

Opt Lett. 2005 Oct 15;30(20):2760-2. doi: 10.1364/ol.30.002760.


A method for obtaining fluorescence images with a high number of resolvable points by using spectral and frequency encoding is presented. Broadband excitation light is encoded with a wavelength-dependent frequency modulation and dispersed onto the sample with a grating to simultaneously illuminate an entire image line. The Fourier transform of the frequency-encoded fluorescence emission provides one line of the image. Mechanical scanning along a direction orthogonal to the wavelength-encoded axis allows creation of the two-dimensional fluorescent image. This method is applicable for developing submillimeter diameter endoscopes. The principles of the technique are validated by imaging indocyanine green fluorescence in microfluidic channels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Endoscopes
  • Endoscopy / methods*
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Fiber Optic Technology
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Image Enhancement / instrumentation
  • Image Enhancement / methods*
  • Microscopy, Confocal / instrumentation
  • Microscopy, Confocal / methods*
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence / instrumentation
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence / instrumentation
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods*