Background: Peptide-enhanced (using the peptide 15 [P-15] synthetic peptide) anorganic bone matrix (ABM) particulate (PPart) grafts have demonstrated clinical and histologic success in human periodontal defects. Dispersion of ABM/P-15 in sodium hyaluronate carrier (PPutty) improves the handling properties of the graft material. The healing of ABM/P-15 particulate and ABM/P-15 putty was compared in critical-sized fenestration defects in 16 mongrel dogs.
Methods: After full thickness flap reflection, 7 mm diameter fenestrations were made with a trephine in the mid-root of both maxillary canines in each dog. Bone, periodontal ligament, and cementum were removed as completely as possible with hand root planing within the trephine-produced notches. By random allocation, each defect was filled with PPart or PPutty, and the flaps were closed with sutures. One dog contributing two defects served as a negative control. Block sections were retrieved at 3 and 8 weeks for histologic processing. Three 6-mu step serial sections in the center of the defects were used for analysis. Parameters measured included the original length of the wound, linear amount of periodontal regeneration including new cementum, bone and connective tissue, and area measurements of new bone and remaining particles. PPutty and PPart results were compared for significant differences using the Wilcoxon rank sum test.
Results: Clinical healing was uneventful in all cases. There was no evidence of inflammation or adverse tissue reactions with either material. The controls showed minimal regeneration at the periphery of the defect. Histomorphometric evaluation of the grafted defects revealed the following: at 3 weeks, there was minimal new bone formation (occupying 4.2% of the grafted area for the PPutty and 1.2% for the PPart). The grafted particles occupied 21.2% and 35.6% of the area for the PPutty and PPart, respectively (P = 0.039). At 8 weeks, there was a tendency for greater new bone formation compared to 3 weeks with both materials. There was significantly more new bone with the PPutty (49.3%) compared to the PPart (14.8%) (P = 0.045). The grafted particles occupied 7.9% and 17% of the grafted area for the PPutty and PPart, respectively (no significant difference). There were no significant differences for any of the linear measurements. ABM/P-15 PPutty had superior handling characteristics.
Conclusions: Both ABM/P-15 materials yielded satisfactory healing and resulted in the greater regeneration of fenestration defects in dogs at 8 weeks compared to controls. In addition, AMB/P-15 putty resulted in more bone formation compared to ABM/P-15 particulate.