Tobacco outlet density, cigarette smoking prevalence, and demographics at the county level of analysis

Subst Use Misuse. 2005;40(11):1627-35. doi: 10.1080/10826080500222685.


The geographic associations between tobacco outlet density, cigarette smoking prevalence, and demographic variables at the county unit of analysis were examined. End of year 2002 data were derived from licenses of 4745 tobacco selling retail outlets in all 99 Iowa counties. The 2000 census and the 2002 Iowa Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (IBRFSS) were used to gather data for demographic variables and smoking prevalence rates. The IBRFSS telephone interviews were conducted from January through December in 2002 with a random sample of 3662 Iowa residents. As expected, results showed that counties with higher density of tobacco outlets and smoking prevalence also tended to have a higher percentage of minority residents. Contrary to previous studies, however, counties with higher tobacco outlet density and smoking prevalence also tended to have higher median household income. Findings are discussed in light of the state's low income inequality. Implications of the study and directions for future research are discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Black or African American / statistics & numerical data
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Commerce / statistics & numerical data*
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / ethnology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Tobacco Industry / statistics & numerical data*