Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

Science. 2005 Nov 25;310(5752):1333-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1115233. Epub 2005 Oct 27.


Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, "surplus land" for agricultural extensification and bioenergy production). However, many changes increase vulnerability as a result of a decreasing supply of ecosystem services (for example, declining soil fertility, declining water availability, increasing risk of forest fires), especially in the Mediterranean and mountain regions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Carbon
  • Climate
  • Conservation of Natural Resources
  • Crops, Agricultural
  • Ecosystem*
  • Environment
  • Europe
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • Humans
  • Models, Statistical
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Trees / growth & development
  • Urban Population
  • Water Supply
  • Wood


  • Carbon