The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy and immunodeficiency on human papillomavirus infection of the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive adults

Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Nov;32(11):703-9. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000175398.34610.2e.


Background: Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oral condylomas has reportedly increased in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The relationships between HIV therapy regimen, overall health, and subclinical oral HPV have not been examined.

Goal: To determine oral HPV genotype prevalence and the impact of HAART and health in the HIV+ population.

Study: An L1 consensus-primer polymerase chain reaction and linear array assay were used to examine the prevalence of 27 HPV genotypes in saliva of 98 HIV+ individuals. Risk assessment variables were compared to oral HPV status.

Results: Oral HPV was detected in 37% of HIV+ African American individuals. Caucasians were at greater risk of oral HPV infection than African Americans. Markers of advanced HIV disease did not predict HPV status. Therapy status was associated with HPV detection.

Conclusions: Treatment of HIV, rather than HIV immunosuppression, appears to play a role in oral HPV infections in HIV+ individuals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  • DNA, Viral / analysis
  • DNA, Viral / isolation & purification
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Female
  • HIV Seropositivity / complications*
  • HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy
  • HIV Seropositivity / immunology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Diseases / complications
  • Mouth Diseases / drug therapy
  • Mouth Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Mouth Neoplasms / complications
  • Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Papillomaviridae / classification
  • Papillomaviridae / genetics
  • Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification
  • Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / immunology
  • Risk Factors
  • Saliva / virology
  • Warts / complications
  • Warts / drug therapy
  • Warts / epidemiology*


  • DNA, Viral