Physical activity barriers in diabetes: development and validation of a new scale

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006 Apr;72(1):20-7. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2005.08.008. Epub 2005 Oct 26.


To develop and validate a questionnaire measuring perceived Barriers to Physical Activity in Diabetes (type 1) or BAPAD1. Initially, an open-ended questionnaire was filled by 36 patients. The modal accessible beliefs obtained on this pilot study were analysed and a scale composed of 12 items (BAPAD1) was developed and validated. Seventy-four type 1 diabetic patients filled the BAPAD1 scale. Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.85 and the correlation between the test-retest scores was 0.84, both indicating adequate reliability of the barriers scale. Each item of BAPAD1 scale displayed very good item characteristic curve except for item 12, which was withdrawn. The test reliability curve indicated that the BAPAD1 scale is informative (value>or=0.82) at all levels of perceived barriers toward physical activity. Moreover, among diabetic-related items, the risk of hypoglycemia showed a particularly good item characteristic curve. In summary, the BAPAD1 scale presents excellent psychometric proprieties and among diabetic-related items, the risk of hypoglycemia should be considered as a significant target to overcome in order to increase physical activity. This new validated tool should be useful in identifying the most salient barriers toward the practice of physical activity and thus, permit more focused intervention in order to overcome those barriers.

MeSH terms

  • Attitude to Health
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / psychology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / rehabilitation
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Exercise / psychology
  • Female
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Internal-External Control
  • Male
  • Motor Activity*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires