Skin biopsies for the measurement of clinical pharmacodynamic biomarkers

Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2005 Dec;16(6):687-90. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2005.10.010. Epub 2005 Oct 28.


The integration of biomarkers reporting on drug pharmacodynamics or on a disease state is becoming necessary in the cost-effective design of clinical trials. Transcriptional changes in skin measured using whole-genome arrays have been useful in assessing the disease state in dermatology. Not only are skin biopsies well-tolerated and easy to obtain, but they sample a system in which many complex signaling and developmental networks are active and in which a wide variety of drug targets may be expected to play a role, either directly or indirectly. Recent advances have led to the use of transcriptional profiling of skin for making pharmacodynamic measurements in clinical trials, even for non-dermatological conditions.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biopsy / methods
  • Biopsy / trends
  • Clinical Trials as Topic / methods
  • Clinical Trials as Topic / trends
  • Drug Design
  • Gene Expression Profiling* / methods
  • Gene Expression Profiling* / trends
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / administration & dosage
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism*
  • Pharmacokinetics*
  • Skin / metabolism*
  • Skin / pathology


  • Pharmaceutical Preparations