Objective: Investigate psychosocial barriers to self-care and the prevalence of depression among Hispanic women with type 2 diabetes.
Research and design methods: One hundred twenty-six (126) Hispanic women living in Miami-Dade, South Florida were recruited through outpatient diabetes clinics, physicians' offices, or community referrals to participate in a cross-sectional survey to assess psychosocial factors that can interfere with type 2 diabetes self-care. The survey collected information on sociodemographics, performance of self-care regimens, a diabetes care profile (support, knowledge, empowerment, and attitudes), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), health locus of control, and perceived stress, as well as other data used to evaluate diabetes status.
Results: Only 4 of the 126 diabetic women interviewed reported having had depression previously assessed. Mean for depression scores was 12.76 +/- 8.71. Scores on the depression inventory indicated depression in 40.6% of subjects, with 23% categorized as mildly, 11.1% moderately, and 6.3% severely depressed. Greater self-assessed depression was associated with poorer self-rated health, understanding of diabetes, and diabetes knowledge scores. Subjects classified as severely depressed had lived with diabetes for a significantly longer mean number of years than those classified as moderately, mildly, or minimally depressed.
Conclusions: Depression had not been previously assessed by any healthcare providers seen by participants or addressed in most participants in this study. While the literature abounds with findings on the depression in diabetes and potential for improved compliance when depression is treated, this concept seems to not yet be adopted into mainstream diabetes care for our Hispanic population.