Helicobacter pylori and Schistosoma japonicum co-infection in a Chinese population: helminth infection alters humoral responses to H. pylori and serum pepsinogen I/II ratio

Microbes Infect. 2006 Jan;8(1):52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2005.05.017. Epub 2005 Jul 22.


The effects of helminth infection on humoral IgG responses and clinical outcome of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection are unknown. IgG and IgG subclass responses to H. pylori and serum pepsinogen I/II ratio, a marker of gastric atrophy, were investigated in a Schistosoma japonicum prevalent Chinese population. H. pylori, CagA and IgG subclass responses were assayed by ELISA. Serum pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II were assayed by ELISA and the pepsinogen I/II ratio determined. In 150 subjects, infection with S. japonicum and H. pylori was 55.3% and 51.3%, respectively. H. pylori IgG titres and CagA seropositivity were significantly lower (P<0.05) in co-infected subjects, and differences in H. pylori IgG isotype responses were evident. In H. pylori positives, a significantly higher (P<0.05) pepsinogen I/II ratio was observed in co-infected subjects. The difference between S. japonicum positive and negative subjects was only evident in H. pylori CagA seronegative subjects. In conclusion, S. japonicum co-infection with H. pylori is associated with alterations in IgG responses to H. pylori and less gastric atrophy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Antigens, Bacterial / metabolism
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Biomarkers
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • China
  • Female
  • Gastritis, Atrophic / metabolism
  • Gastritis, Atrophic / microbiology
  • Gastritis, Atrophic / parasitology
  • Helicobacter Infections / blood*
  • Helicobacter Infections / complications
  • Helicobacter Infections / immunology*
  • Helicobacter pylori / immunology*
  • Helicobacter pylori / physiology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pepsinogen A / blood*
  • Pepsinogen C / blood*
  • Schistosoma japonicum / immunology*
  • Schistosoma japonicum / physiology
  • Schistosomiasis japonica / complications*
  • Schistosomiasis japonica / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Antigens, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Biomarkers
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • cagA protein, Helicobacter pylori
  • Pepsinogen C
  • Pepsinogen A