Maternal plasma concentrations of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and C-peptide in early pregnancy and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Nov;193(5):1691-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2005.04.015.


Objective: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) may be important determinants of glucose homeostasis. We examined the association between circulating concentrations of IGF-1, IGFBP-1 in early pregnancy and development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Study design: Maternal plasma (collected at 13 weeks) IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and C-peptide were measured using immunoassay. Relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs were calculated.

Results: The percentage of the cohort that developed GDM was 5.8% (n = 804). Free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 were inversely associated with GDM risk, while C-peptide was positively associated with GDM risk (P for trend test < .05). Women with free IGF-1 > or = 1.08 ng/mL experienced a 69% reduced risk of GDM (CI 0.12-0.75) compared with women having concentrations < 0.80 ng/mL. There was a 57% reduced risk of GDM among women with IGFBP-1 > or = 68.64 ng/mL (RR = 0.43, CI 0.18-1.05). Women with C-peptide > or = 3.00 ng/mL experienced a 2.28-fold increased risk of GDM (CI 1.00-5.19) compared with women who had concentrations < 1.45 ng/mL.

Conclusion: These associations may help to further elucidate the pathologic process of GDM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • C-Peptide / blood*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / blood*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 / blood*
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis*
  • Pregnancy
  • Risk
  • Risk Factors


  • C-Peptide
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I