Identification and characterization of Elf1, a conserved transcription elongation factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Nov;25(22):10122-35. doi: 10.1128/MCB.25.22.10122-10135.2005.


In order to identify previously unknown transcription elongation factors, a genetic screen was carried out to identify mutations that cause lethality when combined with mutations in the genes encoding the elongation factors TFIIS and Spt6. This screen identified a mutation in YKL160W, hereafter named ELF1 (elongation factor 1). Further analysis identified synthetic lethality between an elf1Delta mutation and mutations in genes encoding several known elongation factors, including Spt4, Spt5, Spt6, and members of the Paf1 complex. Genome-wide synthetic lethality studies confirmed that elf1Delta specifically interacts with mutations in genes affecting transcription elongation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Elf1 is cotranscriptionally recruited over actively transcribed regions and that this association is partially dependent on Spt4 and Spt6. Analysis of elf1Delta mutants suggests a role for this factor in maintaining proper chromatin structure in regions of active transcription. Finally, purification of Elf1 suggests an association with casein kinase II, previously implicated in roles in transcription. Together, these results suggest an important role for Elf1 in the regulation of transcription elongation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Casein Kinase II / chemistry
  • Chromatin / chemistry
  • Chromatin / metabolism
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism
  • DNA Repair
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Galactose / chemistry
  • Galactose / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal*
  • Genotype
  • Glucose / chemistry
  • Histone Chaperones
  • Humans
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Plasmids / metabolism
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Raffinose / pharmacology
  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / physiology*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Temperature
  • Transcription, Genetic*
  • Transcriptional Elongation Factors / genetics*
  • Transcriptional Elongation Factors / metabolism
  • Transcriptional Elongation Factors / physiology*
  • Zinc Fingers


  • Chromatin
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Elf1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Histone Chaperones
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • PAF1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • SPT4 protein, S cerevisiae
  • SPT6 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Transcriptional Elongation Factors
  • SPT5 transcriptional elongation factor
  • Casein Kinase II
  • Glucose
  • Raffinose
  • Galactose