The dentate gyrus provides the main input to the hippocampus. Information reaches the CA3 region through mossy fibre synapses made by dentate granule cell axons. Synaptic plasticity at the mossy fibre-pyramidal cell synapse is unusual for several reasons, including low basal release probability, pronounced frequency facilitation and a lack of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor involvement in long-term potentiation. In the past few years, some of the mechanisms underlying the peculiar features of mossy fibre synapses have been elucidated. Here we describe recent work from several laboratories on the various forms of synaptic plasticity at hippocampal mossy fibre synapses. We conclude that these contacts have just begun to reveal their many secrets.