In breast cancer, cyclins D1 and E and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 (Waf1/Cip1)and p27 (Kip1) are important in cell-cycle control and as potential oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. They are regulated in breast cancer cells following mitogenic stimuli including activation of receptor tyrosine kinases and steroid hormone receptors, and their deregulation frequently impacts on breast cancer outcome, including response to therapy. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (INK4A) also has a critical role in transformation of mammary epithelial cells. In addition to their roles in cell cycle control, some of these molecules, particularly cyclin D1, have actions that are not mediated through regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity but may be important for loss of proliferative control during mammary oncogenesis.
Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.