Why is the management of glucocorticoid deficiency still controversial: a review of the literature

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Nov;63(5):483-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02320.x.


All endocrinologists would like to make glucocorticoid replacement therapy for their hypoadrenal patients as physiological as possible. Many would like the reassurance of a method of monitoring such treatment to confirm that they are achieving this aim. Advances in our knowledge of the normal physiology are relevant to our attempts to do this. The cortisol production rate in normal subjects is lower than was previously believed. The normal pattern of glucocorticoid secretion includes both a diurnal rhythm and a pulsatile ultradian rhythm. Glucocorticoid access to nuclear receptors is 'gated' by the 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, which interconvert active cortisol and inactive cortisone. Such complexities make the target of physiological glucocorticoid replacement therapy hard to achieve. The available evidence suggests that conventional treatment of hypoadrenal patients may result in adverse effects on some surrogate markers of disease risk, such as a lower bone mineral density than age-sex matched controls, and increases in postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. Although the quality of life of hypoadrenal patients may be impaired, there is no evidence of an improvement on higher doses of steroids, although quality of life is better if the hydrocortisone dose is split up, with the highest dose taken in the morning. Thus the evidence suggests that most patients may safely be treated with a low dose of glucocorticoid (e.g. 15 mg hydrocortisone daily) in two or three divided doses, with education about the appropriate action to take in the event of intercurrent illnesses.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Insufficiency / drug therapy*
  • Adrenal Insufficiency / mortality
  • Adrenal Insufficiency / physiopathology
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular System / metabolism
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Interactions
  • Female
  • Glucocorticoids / deficiency*
  • Glucocorticoids / metabolism
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Quality of Life


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Hydrocortisone