Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) provides a computerized diagnostic result as a "second opinion" to assist radiologists in the diagnosis of various diseases by use of medical images. CAD has become a practical clinical approach in diagnostic radiology, although, at present, primarily in the area of detection of breast cancer in mammograms. Currently, a large research effort has been devoted to the detection and classification of various lung diseases in thoracic computed tomography (CT) images. We describe in this article the current status of the development of CAD schemes in thoracic CT, including nodule detection, distinction between benign and malignant nodules, and detection, characterization, and differential diagnosis of diffuse lung disease. Observer performance studies indicate that these CAD schemes would be useful in clinical practice by providing radiologists with computer output as a "second opinion."