An enzyme immuno assay (EIA) test based on Japanese strain-derived high-molecular-weight cell-associated proteins (JHM-CAP) was evaluated by comparing with a previously developed EIA test based on a U.S. strain-derived high-molecular-weight cell-associated proteins (HM-CAP). Serum samples of 131 Japanese asymptomatic children (mean age, 5.5 years; range, 0 to 21 years) were tested that include 43 positive and 88 negative children as judged by Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA test). Both tests showed comparable and reliable specificities, but the sensitivity of JHM-CAP EIA, at 93.0%, was much higher than that of HM-CAP EIA, at 67.4%. More false-negative results of HM-CAP were obtained in children under 10 years of age. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the JHM-CAP but not the HM-CAP preparation had a 100-kDa antigen recognized by JHM-CAP positive sera. It was concluded that JHM-CAP EIA is highly accurate for the serodiagnosis of H. pylori infection in Japanese young children and that the high sensitivity of JHM-CAP EIA in contrast to HM-CAP EIA is due to the presence of a 100-kDa antigen in Japanese strains that may be recognized by the host immune system at an early stage of infection.