Expression microarray analysis identified CITED1 among a group of genes specifically upregulated in the pubertal mouse mammary gland. At puberty, CITED1 localizes to the luminal epithelial cell population of the mammary ducts and the body cells of the terminal end buds. Generation of CITED1 gene knockout mice showed that homozygous null mutants exhibit retarded mammary ductal growth at puberty and, in addition, dilated ductal structures with a lack of spatial restriction of the subtending branches. Analysis of CITED1 homozygous null and heterozygous null mammary gland gene expression using microarrays suggested that the mammary-specific phenotype seen in the homozygous null females is due to a disturbance in the transcription of a number of key mediators of pubertal ductal morphogenesis. These include estrogen and TGFbeta responsive genes, such as the EGFR/ErbB2 ligand, amphiregulin, whose transcription we suggest is directly or indirectly regulated by CITED1.