A mycoplasma was isolated from the sputum of an immunodeficient patient with recurrent bronchitis. The isolate designated strain A39T was very fastidious and atypical for a mycoplasma in its colonial appearance. Classical biochemical tests for mycoplasma speciation could not differentiate the isolate from the pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium and serological identification as a recognized Mycoplasma species was lacking. Specific PCR detection for these two species was negative. Subsequently, other strains were isolated from human patients that appeared to be similar to strain A39T in their physiological and genetic characteristics. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene placed strain A39T and other isolates in the pneumoniae group of mycoplasmas, with the highest sequence similarity to Mycoplasma testudinis (96.8 %), but with only 93.0 % similarity to M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium. Examination of the 16S-23S rRNA internally transcribed spacer sequence, protein electrophoresis profile, genome size and serological reactions indicated that this organism represents a novel species, for which the name Mycoplasma amphoriforme sp. nov. is proposed, with strain A39T (=NCTC 11740T=ATCC BAA-992T) as the type strain.