Recently, DYX1C1, a candidate gene for developmental dyslexia, encoding a nuclear tetratricopeptide repeat domain protein dynamically regulated in brain, has been characterized through a translocation breakpoint in a Finnish family. Two putatively functional variants, -3G/A and 1249G/T, have been reported to be significantly associated with dyslexia in this population. Further studies, conducted on different ethnic groups (English and Canadian), have not confirmed a role for DYX1C1 variants in increasing the risk for dyslexia. We investigated the role of these variants in dyslexic children and adolescents from Southern Italy. No significant evidence for association between dyslexia and these DYX1C1 putative functional variants has been shown. We argue that the different DYX1C1 allele frequencies shown among Italian and Finnish subjects with dyslexia could be attributable to the different linkage disequilibrium structure of these populations.