Immunotherapeutic approaches to prevent, ameliorate, and cure type 1 diabetes

Am J Ther. Nov-Dec 2005;12(6):481-90. doi: 10.1097/01.mjt.0000178782.97413.79.


Type 1A diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune islet beta cell destruction precipitated by environmental triggers in genetically predisposed individuals. Islet beta cells produce insulin and are the primary target of this autoimmune disorder. Insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and insulinoma associated-2 autoantibodies (IAA, GAD65, and IA-2) are the autoantibodies that have been associated most clearly with the development of T1D. Despite our current ability to predict T1D using genetic markers and detecting islet autoantibodies, we have yet to find a safe way to prevent the disease. However, there are more than 100 different therapies that prevent T1D in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model or the BioBreeding (BB) rats. This paper reviews a few select therapeutic approaches that have been or are being evaluated as possibilities for the prevention, amelioration, or cure of T1D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoantibodies / isolation & purification
  • Cyclosporine / therapeutic use*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / immunology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / prevention & control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / therapy
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Mice
  • Niacinamide / therapeutic use*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Rats


  • Autoantibodies
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Niacinamide
  • Cyclosporine