The aim of this study was to investigate whether postoperative hyperperfusion is associated with preoperative cerebral hemodynamic impairment due to chronic ischemia and with acute cerebral ischemia during clamping of the internal carotid artery (ICA) during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Transcranial cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) was monitored intraoperatively using near-infrared spectroscopy in 89 patients undergoing CEA for ipsilateral ICA stenosis (>70%). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were also measured using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before CEA. In addition, CBF was measured immediately after CEA and on the third postoperative day. Hyperperfusion (CBF increase>100% compared with preoperative values) was observed immediately after CEA in 10 of 18 patients (56%) with reduced preoperative CVR. Also, post-CEA hyperperfusion was observed in nine of 16 patients (56%) whose SO2 during clamping of the ICA decreased to less than 90% of the preclamping value. Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced preoperative CVR and reduced SO2 during ICA clamping were significant independent predictors of the development of hyperperfusion immediately after CEA. In fact, all patients with reduced preoperative CVR and reduced SO2 during ICA clamping developed post-CEA hyperperfusion, and two of these patients developed cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. These data suggest that development of cerebral hyperperfusion after CEA is associated with preoperative hemodynamic impairment and intraoperative cerebral ischemia.