Human urine proteome analysis by three separation approaches

Proteomics. 2005 Dec;5(18):4994-5001. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200401334.


The urinary proteome is known to be a valuable field of study related to organ functions. There have been several extensive urine proteome studies. However, the overlapping rate among different studies is relatively low. Whether the low overlapping rate was caused by different sample sources, preparation, separation and identification methods is unknown. Moreover, low molecular mass (<10 kDa) proteins have not been studied extensively. In this report, male and female pooled urine samples were collected from healthy volunteers. The urinary proteins were acetone precipitated, separated and identified by three approaches, 1-DE plus 1-D LC/MS/MS, direct 1-D LC/MS/MS and 2-D LC/MS/MS. 1-D tricine gels were used to separate low molecular mass proteins. The tandem mass spectra of positive identifications were quality controlled both by manual validation and using advanced mass spectrum scanner software. A total of 226 urinary proteins were identified; 171 proteins were identified by proteomics approach for the first time, including 4 male-specific proteins. Twelve low molecular mass proteins were identified. Most urinary proteins had a molecular mass between 30 and 60 kDa and a pI between 4 and 10. The apparent molecular masses of many proteins were different from theoretical ones, which indicated their post-translational modification and degradation. The effects of sample preparation, separation and identification methods on the overlapping rate of different experiments are discussed.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • Proteins / isolation & purification*
  • Proteinuria*
  • Proteome / analysis*


  • Proteins
  • Proteome