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Review
, 330 (5), 227-32

A Lethal Tetrad in Diabetes: Hyperglycemia, Dyslipidemia, Oxidative Stress, and Endothelial Dysfunction

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Review

A Lethal Tetrad in Diabetes: Hyperglycemia, Dyslipidemia, Oxidative Stress, and Endothelial Dysfunction

Yongxin Yu et al. Am J Med Sci.

Abstract

This paper addresses the consequences of diabetes and obesity, diseases that have become epidemic in our society, particularly in the past 20 years. Specifically, it summarizes current knowledge about some of the risk factors and mechanisms for the vascular complications of diabetes. These complications can be broadly divided into microvascular disease, such as diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy, and macrovascular disease, such as accelerated atherosclerosis, and they are the main cause for morbidity and premature mortality among diabetic patients. The roles of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and dyslipoproteinemia, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction will be considered. Finally, the "treatment gap" will be addressed. This gap refers to our failure to achieve currently accepted goals to reduce established risk factors for complications in the clinical management of diabetic patients.

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