Implementation of the modified-SHIRPA protocol for screening of dominant phenotypes in a large-scale ENU mutagenesis program

Mamm Genome. 2005 Nov;16(11):829-37. doi: 10.1007/s00335-005-2430-8. Epub 2005 Nov 11.


SHIRPA is a three-stage protocol for the comprehensive assessment of primarily mouse behavior. The first stage consists of high-throughput phenotyping of 33 behavioral observations and 7 metabolic or disease observations. We modified this part of the protocol by integrating new morphologic observations into the initial phenotype assay of behavior and dysmorphology. Behavioral observations assessed by this protocol, now referred to as the "modified-SHIRPA," are compatible with the original "SHIRPA" protocol. Using modified-SHIRPA, we screened dominant phenotypes of more than 10,000 G(1) progeny generated by crossing DBA/2J females with ENU-treated C57BL/6J males. To date, we have obtained 136 hereditary-confirmed mutants that exhibit behavioral and morphologic defects. Some independent mutant lines exhibited similar phenotypes, suggesting that they may represent alleles of the same gene or mutations in the same genetic pathway. They could hold great potential for the unraveling of the molecular mechanisms of certain phenotypes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal*
  • Ethylnitrosourea / pharmacology*
  • Female
  • Hindlimb / abnormalities
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred DBA
  • Mice, Mutant Strains / classification
  • Mice, Mutant Strains / genetics
  • Mutagenesis*
  • Mutagens
  • Phenotype
  • Skin Pigmentation / genetics


  • Mutagens
  • Ethylnitrosourea