Intermittent high glucose enhances ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture: the distinct role of protein kinase C and mitochondrial superoxide production

Atherosclerosis. 2005 Dec;183(2):259-67. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.03.015.


In this study the effects of stable and intermittent high glucose concentrations on ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin production, PKC activity and PKCbetaI, betaII and delta isoforms expression in cultured HUVEC have been examined. In stable high glucose ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin concentration and mRNA expression increased, and this effect was even more evident in intermittent high glucose. PKC activity increased in fluctuating glucose compared to stable high glucose, due to an over-expression of betaI, betaII and delta isoforms. ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin, after the adding of total PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide-I (BIMI-I) and LY379196, a specific inhibitor of PKCbeta, were equally reduced. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a sensitive indicator of oxidative damage to DNA, increased in stable and even more in intermittent high glucose and was reduced by both BIMI-I and LY379196. However, when thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex II and the SOD mimetic Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) were added, all adhesion molecules, any PKC isoforms expression and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were normalized in both constant and oscillating glucose. In conclusion intermittent high glucose induces a greater expression of the adhesion molecules than stable high glucose; this effect seems to be related to an activation of PKCbeta, but completely dependent from mitochondrial free radicals over-production.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Deoxyguanosine / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • E-Selectin / biosynthesis*
  • E-Selectin / drug effects
  • E-Selectin / genetics
  • Endothelium, Vascular / cytology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Gene Expression / drug effects
  • Glucose / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / biosynthesis*
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / drug effects
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / genetics
  • Mitochondria / enzymology*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Protein Kinase C / drug effects
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism*
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Superoxides / metabolism
  • Sweetening Agents / administration & dosage
  • Umbilical Veins / cytology
  • Umbilical Veins / metabolism
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / biosynthesis*
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / drug effects
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / genetics


  • E-Selectin
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Sweetening Agents
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Superoxides
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
  • 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Deoxyguanosine
  • Glucose