Background: The chemokine receptor polymorphisms CCR5Delta32, CXCL12 3'A, CCR2-64I and CCR5-59029 G/A have been demonstrated to affect HIV-1 infection and progression.
Objective: We studied the impact of the above polymorphisms on the effectiveness of a 30-month treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 149 HIV-1 patients.
Study design: We stratified the patients according to CD4 CDC criteria and applied Kaplan-Meier analysis using the following end-point criteria: (a) the time from HAART initiation to undetectable viral load (VL) counts (VL<50 copies/ml), (b) the duration of undetectable VL status and (c) the time required for CD4+ T-cell counts to pass over the 500 cells/ml threshold.
Results: Our results in the second group (CD4 201-500) revealed that patients with the CCR2-64I allele achieved undetectable VL counts at 3.5+/-0.48 months as compared to 10.26+/-1.42 months in the control group (p=0.018). The VL remained undetectable for 28+/-2 months, in contrast to 20+/-2 months in the control group (p=0.048). Patients carrying CXCL12 3'A restored the CD4 population faster than the control group (9+/-2 and 14+/-2 months, respectively, p=0.023). The CCR5Delta32 and CCR5-59029 G/A alleles did not appear to affect the parameters studied.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that patients carrying either CCR2-64I or CXCL12 3'A have a more favorable prognosis during HAART treatment.