Cross-amplification of 15 human microsatellites was performed successfully in cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus (M. mulatta) macaques and 11 other Cercopithecidae species of biomedical and conservation relevance. To allow for quick, efficient, and high-throughput genotyping to assess intra- and interspecific genetic variation, we performed three multiplex sets, each comprised of five markers from different parts of the genome (i.e., autosomes, the MHC region, and the X-chromosome). These multiplex sets are likely to reveal allelic divergence between taxa, which could be used for their discrimination. Population studies on three regional populations of M. fascicularis and one of M. mulatta revealed that most of the loci, with the exception of one monomorphic locus, displayed polymorphisms (the expected heterozygosities were 0.48-0.91 for M. fascicularis, and 0.61-0.93 for M. mulatta), which makes them useful for population genetics. For the multiplex set M1, including the nonlinked autosomal markers, low probabilities of identity were observed: P(ID) values ranged from 8 x 10(-7) to 3 x 10(-5). This multiplex set is reliable for forensic applications, such as individual identification, parentage testing, and kinship analysis, in wild and captive populations.