To estimate the variability in outcomes attributable to therapists in clinical practice, the authors analyzed the outcomes of 6,146 patients seen by approximately 581 therapists in the context of managed care. For this analysis, the authors used multilevel statistical procedures, in which therapists were treated as a random factor. When the initial level of severity was taken into account, about 5% of the variation in outcomes was due to therapists. Patient age, gender, and diagnosis as well as therapist age, gender, experience, and professional degree accounted for little of the variability in outcomes among therapists. Whether or not patients were receiving psychotropic medication concurrently with psychotherapy did affect therapist variability. However, the patients of the more effective therapists received more benefit from medication than did the patients of less effective therapists.
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