Translational research principles of an effectiveness trial for diabetes care in an urban African American population

Diabetes Educ. Nov-Dec 2005;31(6):880-9. doi: 10.1177/0145721705282254.


Purpose: Large-scale effectiveness trials designed to translate evidence-based diabetes care to community settings are few. Studies describing these methods among high-risk minority populations are particularly limited.

Methods: The authors describe Project Sugar, a randomized controlled trial conducted in 2 phases: Project Sugar 1 (1994-1999), which piloted a 4-arm clinic and home-based intervention using nurse case management and community health workers in 186 urban African Americans with type 2 diabetes, and Project Sugar 2 (2000-2005), which examined effectiveness of this intervention among 542 diabetic, urban African Americans. Results and Conclusions Project Sugar had success with regard to recruitment and retention, both in phase 1 (80% rate at 24 months) and phase 2 (>90% at 24 months). Using the RE-AIM framework, planning and research design for Project Sugar 2 is described in detail for elements that contributed to the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of this study within a minority community setting. In addition to successful strategies, challenges to conducting effectiveness trials in an inner-city African American community are identified.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • African Continental Ancestry Group*
  • Community Health Nursing
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / nursing
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / rehabilitation*
  • Humans
  • Maryland
  • Minority Groups
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Self Care
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urban Population*