Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) attenuate diacylglycerol signaling by converting this lipid to phosphatidic acid (PA). The nine mammalian DGKs that have been identified are widely expressed, but each isoform has a unique tissue and subcellular distribution. Their kinase activity is regulated by mechanisms that modify their access to diacylglycerol, directly affect their kinase activity, or alter their ability to bind to other proteins. In many cases, these enzymes regulate the activity of proteins that are modulated by either diacylglycerol or PA. Experiments using cultured cells and model organisms have demonstrated that DGKs have prominent roles in neuronal transmission, lymphocyte signaling, and carcinogenesis.
(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.